Criminal Justice

Bachelor of Science Degree

Program Outline

Your program consists of 121 credits and is designed to provide the knowledge and skills you’ll need for your career.

You will receive credit for previous college work if it meets Penn Foster College standards and matches the curriculum requirements. If you wish to receive credit for previous coursework, contact the college you attended and ask that your official transcripts by forwarded to Penn Foster College for evaluation.

All previous college work must have been completed with a grade of “C” or better, and up to 75% of the required credits may be transferred. We will also credit your tuition for all the courses that are acceptable.

We’ll send your first course materials immediately after your enrollment for the first semester has been accepted. Once your transcripts have been evaluated, the required courses will follow one at a time as you complete your required assignments, so you’ll always have learning materials to work with.

The first course, Basic Skills Assessment, is available online only, which allows you to start studying right away. You will not receive hardcopy program materials for these lessons. You can access your first course as soon as your tuition payment has been received. Other courses will follow as you complete your exams.

Computer Specifications
As you know this is an online academic program. This means you will need access to high-speed internet to begin your program. In addition, you will need access to a Microsoft® Windows® based computer running Windows 10® or later or an Apple® Mac® computer running macOS® or later, Microsoft® Office 2019 or Microsoft 365®, and an email account to complete this program.

All students must successfully meet the 121 credit requirements described below to earn a Bachelor of Science Degree:

PROGRAM GOAL AND OUTCOMES

Program Goal: To prepare students for professional opportunities in the United States criminal justice field and for a wide array of entry-level positions in criminal justice, as well as to provide a foundation for graduate studies.

Program Outcomes:
Upon completion of the program, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate effective written and interpersonal communication skills
  • Demonstrate a high level of inquiry, analytical, and problem-solving skills
  • Demonstrate effective quantitative skills
  • Demonstrate computer and information literacy
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the liberal arts, natural sciences, and social sciences
  • Apply the procedures used to obtain, evaluate, and communicate information in a legal environment
  • Explain the typical levels of management and organizational components in the modern police organization and other major entities of the criminal justice system and different leadership styles and theories
  • Discuss the legal system in the United States, including the origins and history of the law, the development of common law, statutory law, constitutional law and how this affects the criminal justice system
  • Analyze the substantive and procedural operations of the criminal justice system with focus on the prosecutorial, judicial, and defense functions
  • Evaluate issues of justice, professionalism, and ethics within law enforcement and the courts
  • Examine the external and internal factors that control the dynamics of law enforcement from the police, prosecution, and defense perspectives as they apply to ethical, moral, and legal applications
  • Discuss the origins and development of the law of search and seizure on the federal and state levels, the ethical and legal issues surrounding the exclusionary rule as it impacts the Fourth and Fifth Amendments, and the workings of an adversarial system of justice
  • Evaluate the relationship between victims and the criminal justice system and provide details of the interaction of victims with the police, prosecutors, court, and defense attorneys
  • Discuss the principles of criminal responsibility and the requirement of culpable mental states, the various defenses used to negate or to mitigate criminal liability, and the prevailing theories and philosophies for criminal punishment including restitution, retribution, and rehabilitation
  • Discuss and compare recognized biological, psychological, and sociological theories about the causes of criminal behavior and the types of criminal behavior and methods for predicting future crime.
  • Analyze the various methods and theories of policing, including reactive, proactive, problem-solving, community policing
  • Analyze theories of corrections, rehabilitation, and punishment and how they affect correctional management practices
  • Describe the juvenile court process, including the rights of juveniles, detention and its alternatives, and how juveniles are processed in adult criminal court
  • Analyze the different types of evidence, such as crime scene evidence, documentary evidence, witness testimony, and scientific evidence. Describe the admissibility requirements for the various forms of evidence as well as the attendant ethical and legal issues presented.
 
BASIC SKILLS ASSESSMENT

All degree applicants are required to complete two Basic Skills Assessments, one in reading and one in math, to determine the level of readiness for beginning their selected program. Additional studies may be required.

 

Semester 1

Criminal Justice Orientation (1 credit)
Succeed by learning how to use your Penn Foster program, and become familiar with the criminal justice system.

Objectives:

  • Understand how to use your Student Portal, including your My Homepage and My Courses pages.
  • Access the Penn Foster Community and use it to find answers.
  • Connect with Penn Foster on various social media sites.
  • Describe how the police legal system and corrections system work together to solve crimes, make arrests, prosecute cases, and deal with convicted offenders.
  • Identify the different tasks that police officers, private security personnel, and federal law enforcement officers do in their jobs.
  • Outline the steps of the criminal justice process, starting with the arrest, moving through

Information Literacy (1 credit)
Get better at finding and using information!

Objectives:

  • Search the Internet more effectively.
  • Get tips about search engines and reliable websites.
  • Learn how to search libraries and other information centers for important, useful information.

Introduction to Criminal Justice (3 credits)
Begin your study of the exciting field of criminal justice.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the nature of crime and how it affects society
  • Explain the history, organization, role, and function of policing, as well as its issues
  • Identify the various roles of the judicial process and the stages of a trial
  • Describe the role that correctional institutions have fulfilled, their design, the people who live there, and the difficulties encountered when leaving the structured environment of prison
  • Recognize how juvenile justice and terrorism impact criminal justice in the United States

Essentials of Psychology (3 credits)
This course covers the psychology of biology and behavior, consciousness, memory, thought and language, intelligence, personality and gender, stress, and community influences.

Objectives:

  • Describe the science of psychology, basic structure and function of the human nervous system, and basic structure and function of the sensory system
  • Explain various states of consciousness, learning theories, and thought processes and development
  • Summarize the nature of human motivation and development, the human development cycle, and approaches to understanding and assessing personality
  • Prepare an essay on the topic of conditioning, memory, or motivation and emotion
  • Recognize psychological disorders and available treatments
  • Explain social psychology as it relates to attitudes, influences, behaviors, and stress
  • Use critical thinking skills to determine the likely causes of behaviors of individuals and groups discussed in case studies

Introduction to Sociology (3 credits)
This course begins with an introduction to the field of sociology and discusses social structure and social interaction through groups, networks, and organizations. It also discusses deviance, crime, and social control; describes the effects of stratification, racial and ethnic inequality, sex, gender, and sexuality; discusses the role of health, family, education, and religion in sociology; and concludes with the topics of politics, the economy, population, social movements, technology, and social change.

Objectives:

  • Categorize the concepts and trajectories of sociology and culture
  • Analyze the discourse of social structure, human interaction, sexual orientation, and deviance
  • Point out the factors determining social, global, and gender stratification
  • Compose essays reflecting on deviance and economy in society
  • Compose an essay that answers questions about privilege and gender differences
  • Distinguish the various institutions in the current global system and the effects of education in them
  • Differentiate between the phases of evolution and social changes determined by the impact of population

Courts (3 credits)
This course looks at the relationship among the judiciary, defense, and prosecution involved in the United States Courts system. You're studies start with an overview of the basic structures of courts. You'll also look to the successive steps involved in prosecutions and cover topics such as plea bargains, trials, juries, sentencing, and appeals.

Objectives:

  • Point out the structure and working process of the legal system in the United States
  • Analyze the emergence of law in the different systems of litigation in America
  • Distinguish between the civil and criminal litigation in state and federal courts in the US
  • Analyze articles relating to the US court system

Proctored Examination
You will be required to complete a proctored exam on selected courses each semester. These assessments will evaluate the knowledge and skills that you learned during the semester. You choose the time, the location, and the qualified exam supervisor.

 

Semester 2

Computer Applications (3 credits)
Microsoft® Office allows people to create documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and databases. This course will teach you how to use three popular tools from the Microsoft® Office Suite — Word™, Excel®, and PowerPoint®. In this course, you'll learn how to use Word™ to create and edit text documents, insert figures and tables, and format pages for a variety of uses. You'll then learn how to use Excel® to organize and format data, including charts, formulas, and more complex tables. Next, you'll learn how to use PowerPoint® to create and deliver slide shows. Finally, you'll complete a graded project, which will test the skills acquired in Word™, Excel®, and PowerPoint®.

Objectives:

  • Create various Microsoft® Word™ documents.
  • Produce a thorough Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet.
  • Identify the basic skills needed to use Microsoft® PowerPoint®.
  • Synthesize what you’ve learned by integrating Word™, Excel®, and PowerPoint®.

English Composition (3 credits)
This course teaches the skills and techniques of effectively developing, drafting, and revising college-level essays toward a specific purpose and audience: active reading, prewriting strategies, sentence and paragraph structure, thesis statements, varied patterns of development (such as illustration, comparison and contrast, and classification), critical reading toward revision of structure and organization, editing for standard written conventions, and use and documentation of outside sources. Students submit two prewriting assignments and three essays (process analysis, comparison and contrast, and argumentation).

Objectives:

  • Use writing skills to construct well-written sentences and active reading skills to understand and analyze text
  • Develop paragraphs using topic sentences, adequate detail, supporting evidence, and transitions
  • Contrast the revising and editing steps of the writing process
  • Distinguish between different patterns of development
  • Write a process analysis essay using prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing skills
  • Recognize how to determine the reliability of secondary sources and to give proper credit to sources referenced in an essay
  • Write a comparison and contrast essay by using persuasive writing techniques to defend a claim
  • Create a sound written argument using techniques of drafting and evaluating sources

Ethics in Criminal Justice (3 credits)
Responding to situations ethically is crucial to public protection and the integrity of the legal profession.

Objectives:

  • Describe morality and ethics within the context of human behavior.
  • Discuss issues of ethics and law enforcement.
  • Discuss the ethics of both punishment and correction.

Course Assignment:

  • Complete a research project and provide ethical solutions to five given scenarios.

Police Studies (3 credits)
Looks at the role of policing in America; discusses the existence of a police subculture, the role of management, and the nature of patrolling; considers different strategies for investigating and solving problems; includes a discussion about ethics, civil liability, and possible directions for policing in the future.

Objectives:

  • Explain the roles and functions of police in American society
  • Describe the development of policing, and recognize how it shaped policing in the modern era
  • Describe the processes involved in police training, selection, and development, including the impact of race and gender
  • Discuss the structure of police organizations, and describe levels of administration and supervision
  • Explain how various police operations are carried out, including those performed by patrol, investigations, traffic, and paramilitary units
  • Discuss the issue of police discretion, including how and when police officers use discretion and its effects
  • Define police use of force, and discuss the patterns and legal requirements for use of force
  • Describe the major perspectives of police behavior, and discuss why the police can be seen as a subculture
  • Describe the role of ethics within police operations, and list several forms of police deviance
  • Discuss the nature of criminal and civil liability as they relate to police operations
  • Describe the factors that impact the relationship between the police and the public, and explain the concepts of crime prevention and community policing
  • Discuss the nature and extent of the drug problem in the United States, and describe the nation's strategy in terms of police planning and operations
  • Discuss the issues associated with terrorism and homeland security as they affect society and the institution of policing

Textbook: Policing in America

Course Assignment:

  • Complete a research project regarding the investigation and analysis of “victimless” crimes.

Nutrition
Nutrition is the science that investigates how the body takes in, breaks down, and uses foods. The course will provide you with basic information on how these processes take place, including information about nutrients and how they contribute to the way the body functions. This will help you to have a better understanding of your decisions about food and diet. You’ll also learn about physical activities that can contribute to a healthier lifestyle. Because a central focus of nutrition studies is on health promotion, suggestions for individual nutrition choice will be discussed, as well as tactics for maintaining a healthy weight and keeping food supplies safe.

Objectives:

  • Describe how nutrition supports a body's wellness
  • Recognize the body's use of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
  • Identify the body's use of water, minerals, and micronutrients
  • Discuss what nutritional needs are for a healthy weight and for an athletic lifestyle
  • Define food safety and the nutritional needs of humans over a lifetime
  • Prepare a research paper on a nutritional topic

Digital Textbook: Nutrition for Healthy Living

 

Semester 3

Legal Research and Writing
Precision in legal writing is important. As an aspiring paralegal, you are required to learn about effective methods of legal research and writing. When you successfully finish this course, you’ll be able to describe the processes involved in writing legal documents and explain their principles while following formats of legal documents. There are various types of common legal documents classified in the course. Legal memorandums are the most complicated legal documents, and facts play an important role in the creation of a legal document. Get ready with your pens and apply all the knowledge and skills of legal research and writing you’ve learned in this course.

Objectives:

  • Demonstrate computer and information literacy
  • Analyze the process of legal writing and the areas that require legal writing
  • Prepare a letter, a deed, and a memorandum using the skills acquired from the course
  • Categorize the disciplines of legal research and the related components
  • Identify the aids used to conduct legal research with the help of computer programs
  • Distinguish between the types of Internet needs with respect to legal research and practices
  • Prepare a report and memorandums on a parental custody case
  • Apply the CALR system to complete legal research assignments

Police Management
The police manager fills a vital role in the operation of a law enforcement agency. This course is designed to provide you with a fundamental understanding of the underlying principles and theories of management, both in general and as they specifically relate to police agencies.

Objectives:

  • Define introductory concepts of police management
  • Analyze the behavioral aspects of police management
  • Identify the functional aspects of police management
  • Categorize major issues in police management
  • Develop solutions for issues with modern police management

Textbook: The Police Manager

Art Appreciation
In this course, you will gain an understanding of artistic media, historical periods and artistic movements, the roles of the artist and the viewer, and the principles of art criticism.

Objectives:

  • Define the language, visual elements, and principles of design of art
  • Identify two-dimensional media
  • Identify three-dimensional media
  • Explain the evolution of art from ancient Mediterranean cultures through eighteenth century Europe
  • Identify features and popular examples of art throughout the history of African, Asian, Pacific, and American cultures
  • Compare the genres of the Modern and Postmodern eras of art from around the world

Textbook: Living with Art, 11th Edition

Intermediate Algebra (3 credits)
Study basic algebraic concepts. Review the systems of equations, polynomials, and radicals. Learn how to factor polynomial expressions and simplify rational expressions.

Objectives:

  • Explain basic algebraic concepts
  • Solve and graph linear equations and inequalities
  • Analyze relations, functionality, and systems of linear equations
  • Prepare algebraic operations on polynomial and rational expressions and equations
  • Solve problems involving radicals and complex numbers

Additional Course Material:
Textbook: Intermediate Algebra

Criminal Law (3 credits)
With this course, you'll review the history of criminal law, from its start in the common law (and the principles of applying case law) to its contemporary forms of statutory and regulatory law. You'll look at crimes and their underlying elements, consider what a prosecutor needs to show in order to secure a conviction beyond a reasonable doubt, examine the traditional form of criminal law as well as strict liability and victimless crimes, discuss a range of criminal offenses, such as inchoate and property-based crimes, crimes of violence and administrative crimes, and consider the excuses, justifications, and defenses to the prosecution of such activities.

Objectives:

  • Explain the principles of criminal responsibility
  • Distinguish between morality and law
  • Describe how crimes are classified
  • Cite the origins of criminal law
  • Describe the police power of government
  • Analyze constitutional limitations on criminal liability
  • Cite the basic elements of a criminal act
  • Deconstruct inchoate, or anticipatory, crimes, crimes against the person, and crimes against property, habitation, and public morality
  • Outline the various defenses and punishments

Course Assignment:

  • Complete a research project where you’ll assume the perspective of a criminal defense lawyer in two high-profile murder cases.

Proctored Examination
You will be required to complete a proctored exam on selected courses each semester. These assessments will evaluate the knowledge and skills that you learned during the semester. You choose the time, the location, and the qualified exam supervisor.

 

Semester 4

Criminal Procedures (3 credits)
Become familiar with the procedures used in criminal cases.

Objectives:

  • Outline the framework for studying criminal procedures.
  • Handle matters involving arrests, search warrants, and probable cause.
  • Describe exceptions to search warrant requirements.
  • Discuss admissions, confessions, and pretrial identification.

Course Assignment:

  • Complete a research project and apply what you’ve learned about criminal procedures to a real-life criminal justice case as chronicled in the book, The Innocent Man.

Speech (3 credits)
Communication of all kinds is the cornerstone of our society. Communication allows you to form connections with the world around you. It influences your decisions and motivates change. Yet one of the most common forms of communication—public speaking—is one of the most common fears people have. To communicate well in public forums is one of the most important skills you can possess. How you speak and present yourself in public can say a lot about you. This course will help you hone these vital speaking skills.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the different methods and principles required for effective public speaking
  • Point out the principles, methods, and skills required to rehearse and deliver effective public speaking
  • Prepare and record a narrative or speech on personal experience
  • Prepare and record an informative podcast for a website
  • Create and record an infomercial by using one of the mentioned methods
  • Prepare and present a motivational or reasoning speech to persuade your audience
  • Produce a vivid speech by employing proper speech preparation and organization

Adolescence and Adulthood (3 credits)
This course will introduce you to the study of human development through the adolescent years and into emerging adulthood. Your textbook focuses on the cultural basis and historical context of adolescent development and includes discussions of the various research studies that have been performed in this field. You’ll learn about physical and cognitive changes that occur during the teen years, beginning at puberty. You’ll also review the patterns of normal behavior and problems that may develop during maturation.

Your course is divided into five major lessons based on your textbook, Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach, Sixth Edition. The purpose of this course is to help you understand the key principles addressed in your textbook. To successfully complete your lessons, you must familiarize yourself with the contents of this course.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the concepts of biological foundations and cognitive foundations
  • Identify the impact of cultural beliefs, gender, and the self-concept on adolescent socialization
  • Categorize the influences of family, friends, and peers on adolescent development
  • Distinguish between the impacts of school and work on adolescent development
  • Differentiate between the various impacts of media on adolescent development

Victimology (3 credits)
For every crime committed, there's a victim. Study the social science of victimology

Objectives:

  • Identify a victim's rights.
  • Describe the relationship between the victim and the criminal justice system.
  • Discuss how the criminal justice system might be changed to better serve victims.

Science Elective (3 credits)
(Choose one) ...

SCI120 - Introduction to Biology
An introductory course that explains the origin of life and the relationships between all living things. It describes how a significant number of organisms are structured and how they work, in order to enable students to discuss intelligently the various forms of life and their processes.

Objectives:

  • Analyze cells and their processes for obtaining energy and reproducing.
  • Explain how traits are passed on from one generation to the next.
  • Explain how different species of living things have evolved and are classified.
  • Write responses to fundamental biology essay prompts.
  • Identify the characteristics and behavior of plants and animals.
  • Diagram the anatomy and physiology of the human body.
  • Describe the ecology of living things.
  • Summarize complex biological issues using research articles.

SCI110 - Earth Science
This course will allow you to learn about planet Earth and the various aspects of the environment.

Objectives:

  • Describe specific characteristics of Earth.
  • Describe different types of rocks and minerals.

Proctored Examination
You will be required to complete a proctored exam on selected courses each semester. These assessments will evaluate the knowledge and skills that you learned during the semester. You choose the time, the location, and the qualified exam supervisor.

 

Semester 5

Correctional Institutions (3 credits)
This course is designed to introduce you to the correctional system in the United States. To this end, you’ll explore the American correctional context, correctional practices, and a number of correctional issues and perspectives.

Objectives:

  • Point out the importance of corrections, the associated laws, and the types of issues
  • Categorize the types of correction programs, reforms, and the issues in them
  • Differentiate between the various correctional programs, treatment methods, and the changes made with time
  • Analyze the corrections used on different convicts and the factors that determine these corrections
  • Apply the philosophy and knowledge of corrections to initiating the process of reentry

Advanced Composition (3 credits)
In this course, you’ll practice research and writing skills by developing papers that require you to use sources and correctly cite them using APA formatting. You’ll learn to look at writing with a critical eye—a skill you can apply to your own work, as well as to the reading you do for research or in your daily activities. You’ll apply these skills to your own writing through editing and revising.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the fundamentals of the writing process
  • Categorize the planning and evaluating methods of a research project and the sources
  • Point out the sources of research and the methods of working with them
  • Differentiate between the organizing, drafting, revising, and documenting processes related to a research project
  • Point out the necessity of describing, illustrating, classifying, dividing, and defining your writing
  • Prepare an illustrative essay based on a specified topic
  • Analyze the process of comparison and contrasting in developing literary content
  • Prepare an essay using comparison and contrast
  • Prepare a cause-and-effect essay on a specified topic
  • Categorize the steps, elements, and strategies of writing and evaluating arguments

Juveniles and the Legal Process (3 credits)
Juvenile justice is a field for criminal justice professionals that offers a great deal of hope for permanent rehabilitation.

Objectives:

  • Explain the philosophies and theories of the juvenile justice system.
  • Identify the risk factors for delinquency.
  • Discuss the different types of corrections available to juvenile offenders.

Introduction to Public Policy (3 credits)
In early tribal societies, public policy was a survival tool—rules that encouraged beneficial group behaviors. Groups tended to be smaller, so daily life was largely face to face and, quite often, the name people had for their society simply meant “the people” or the “human beings.” Understanding and cooperating with nature was the name of the game when it came to survival. As population densities and numbers increased in the first urbanized societies, the mode of production was intensive, organized agriculture that produced food surpluses. Policies were made at the top and outcomes were often problematic for all those folks trying to make a living day by day. Today, in light of the powerful forces of advancing technology, ideals of democratic governance, and sophisticated modes of communication, social orders are imposed on natural environments.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the fundamentals and purpose of public policies
  • Categorize the various market and government policies and their purposes
  • Distinguish between the various tools used for analyzing, measuring, and sampling policies
  • Point out the roles of various institutes and the ways in which they affect policy making
  • Prepare an essay on an ineffective public policy analysis and suggest ideas for improvement

Criminology (3 credits)
Criminology is the discipline that studies crime and criminal behavior. In this course, you’ll study the causes of crime, reactions, and different forms of criminal behavior. You'll also explore the many interrelationships of the criminal enterprise, the criminal justice system, and the study of the reasons for criminality.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the disciplines of criminology, victimology, and the associated research methods
  • Point out the important theories in criminology
  • Distinguish between violent crime, property crime, and white-collar crime
  • Categorize the special types of crime and the future of crime
  • Analyze theories on the emergence of law

Course Assignment:

  • Research law enforcement policies related to crime rates and criminology theory

Proctored Examination
You will be required to complete a proctored exam on selected courses each semester. These assessments will evaluate the knowledge and skills that you learned during the semester. You choose the time, the location, and the qualified exam supervisor.

 

Semester 6

Community Corrections (3 credits)
Understanding the concepts of community corrections is an integral part of the study of criminal justice. Community corrections encompasses offenders who are supervised in community programs such as probation, house arrest, work release, or treatment court initiatives. Some may be assigned to community corrections in lieu of jail; others are placed on parole where they’re supervised in the community after serving a minimum term of incarceration ordered by the court.

As you work through this course, you’ll begin to understand the study of criminology and how to assess offenders who meet the criteria to be placed in community corrections programs. You’ll become knowledgeable about community corrections programs that can afford the offender opportunities to avoid re-offending while keeping the community safe. When considering community corrections, courts must evaluate the offender’s needs and the needs of the community. Here are some questions to consider when looking at a community corrections alternative to imprisonment:

  • Can the offender pay for his or her crime without going to prison?
  • Can the offender stay in the community while serving the court-ordered punishment?
  • What type of program can serve as punishment, allow the offender to rehabilitate, and therefore allow the offender to meet his or her needs and possibly avoid further criminal behavior?

Your textbook will clarify these issues and will help you become familiar with the concepts associated with community corrections. It will also introduce you to theories and schools of thought to assist you in assessing criminal behavior and determining the needs of the offender and the risk he or she poses, while reviewing available intermediate sanctions and community correctional programs which will best serve the community and the offender.

By the end of this course, you’ll be able to do the following:

  • Analyze the development, theories, and programs/sanctions related to community corrections
  • Distinguish between probation and parole and the way each one is implemented
  • Point out the alternative supervision programs as options for correctional programs
  • Analyze the treatment and supervision of the mentally ill, sex offenders, and juveniles under corrections
  • Prepare a report for the mentioned factors that is addressed by your jurisdiction

Business Statistics (3 credits)
In this course, you’ll learn about presentation of data, frequency distribution, averages, dispersion and skewness, index numbers, time series analysis, correlation and forecasting, the theory of probability, and statistical inference.

Objectives:

  • Show the methods of collecting data and visualizing of qualitative data in statistics
  • Analyze the methods of computing probability for discrete and random variables
  • Apply sampling distribution methods, estimation, and hypothesis testing in business applications
  • Point out the process of computing inferences, linear regression, and least square

Sociology of Diversity (3 credits)
This course is designed to help you understand the world around you, including the impact of social influences, common social problems, and social systems in a better way. The resources will encourage you to examine social problems and institutions from different perspectives. You’ll learn about the basics of sociological theories and the ways of exploring them. Various social institutions help in shaping our perspectives and determine the ways of interacting with the world. There are numerous social problems in the physical and natural world; the course provides you with the explanation behind the issues from the various social perspectives. So, to understand the sociology, you are required to focus on the social problems and derive solutions from those issues.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the causes of inequality in a society and the methods of tackling them
  • Point out the social issues related to the social institutions and the methods of prevention
  • Categorize the problems associated with our social and physical worlds and the ways of improvement
  • Prepare an integrated paper on your findings on your own personal and cultural influences
  • Prepare a paper on your experience after attending one to two cultural events or activities
  • Prepare an integrated paper on the findings on recommended improvements facilitated in a cross-cultural community

Elective (3 credits)
See the list of electives below

>Music Appreciation
In this course, you'll understand how to appreciate music by learning about the roles of the composer and the listener, the principles of music theory and instrumentation, musically significant historical periods, and varying styles of music.

Objectives:

  • Identify the building blocks of music a composer can use to create a piece, such as rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, form, and timbre
  • Explain the evolution of Western music through history, from the Middle Ages to the twenty-first century
  • Differentiate between the music of the baroque era and the musical styles of previous time periods
  • Recognize the major characteristics of classical music, including form, melody, and instrumentation
  • Discuss the musical trends and innovations that occurred during the romantic era
  • Trace the evolution of American popular music in the twentieth century
  • Recognize the influence of world music on modern Western composition

Textbook: Experience Music, Fourth Edition

Proctored Examination
You will be required to complete a proctored exam on selected courses each semester. These assessments will evaluate the knowledge and skills that you learned during the semester. You choose the time, the location, and the qualified exam supervisor.

 

Semester 7

Organizational Behavior (3 credits)
You’re about to embark on a course of study that can help you become familiar with the various factors that influence the behavior of individuals and groups within an organizational context. This course examines key principles and challenges associated with the evolving arena of business and organizational management. Its particular focus is on how people behave—as individuals and in groups—in organizational settings. Your course begins with a review of the ways in which previous generations of researchers, theorists, and business leaders have regarded management, as well as current trends in management theory and practice. A genuine examination of organizational behavior must consider the factors that influence individual behavior and those that shape organizational goals. To strike an optimal balance between individual motivations and the needs and goals of organizations, effective management requires a solid understanding of both of these issues.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the fundamentals of organizational behavior, culture, and individuality
  • Differentiate between the stages of perception, attribution, stress management, motivation, and engagement
  • Point out the methods of fostering creativity, innovation, and decision making
  • Distinguish between the concepts of effective communication, group making, and team development
  • Categorize the elements of conflict, negotiation, and leadership
  • Analyze the structure of organizational working and its associated elements
  • Prepare a report on emotional labor perspectives at various workplaces by utilizing your findings

Administration of Justice (3 credits)
Without our criminal justice system, we wouldn’t be able to enjoy the privileges and benefits of living in a free society. The hardworking men and women of the criminal justice system are responsible for breathing life into each one of our criminal laws. The police serve as the initial enforcers of the law. The courts make sure that laws are fairly and impartially enforced. The courts also scrupulously protect citizens’ constitutional rights. Correctional organizations are responsible for administering our jails and prisons. The individuals who work in corrections have difficult and dangerous jobs. This course examines the components of the criminal justice system in detail and gives you valuable insights into their organization, operation, and administration.

Objectives:

  • Explain the importance of service quality in justice administration
  • Consider how specific influences and issues affect the field of justice administration
  • Explain the importance of motivation, leadership, and communication in justice administration
  • Differentiate among various roles in justice administration
  • Explain the differences between various kinds of facilities and private security
  • Demonstrate your analytical and problem-solving skills in an essay about criminal justice administration

Evidence (3 credits)
Evidence is what we use to prove or disprove a fact, a case, or a conviction. Criminal evidence is crucial to the justice system. Without evidence, the U.S. justice system wouldn’t function.

In this course, you’ll develop a better comprehension of the criminal justice system. You’ll learn what types of witness testimony are admissible and how to determine when evidence can’t be used because of police misconduct or mistakes. You’ll learn about the various types of crime scene and scientific evidence. When you’re finished with this course, you’ll have a better understanding of the different types of evidence, their collection, and their use during criminal trials, which will help you better understand the criminal justice system.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the components of evidence determination and the laws around them
  • Point out the importance of judicial notice, inferences, presumptions, admissibility, and witnesses in court proceedings
  • Categorize the rights, roles, privileges, and rules associated with court proceedings
  • Distinguish between the types of evidences, the issues around their collection, and the prevention methods
  • Prepare a comprehensive essay on filing a criminal prosecution against John Robinson

Elective (3 credits)
See the list of electives below

Elective (3 credits)
See the list of electives below

Proctored Examination
You will be required to complete a proctored exam on selected courses each semester. These assessments will evaluate the knowledge and skills that you learned during the semester. You choose the time, the location, and the qualified exam supervisor.

 

Semester 8

Supervision and Leadership (3 credits)
The process of leadership involves much more than having a supervisory title or a managerial position. This course will teach you that leadership is a complex process involving many facets. Leadership involves methodology, psychology, evaluation, and influence. This process can occur anywhere in the chain of authority, regardless of the position. The most successful organizations integrate these leadership elements throughout the workforce to achieve maximum business goals.

This course will give you an understanding of relevant leadership issues, theories, and principles with real-life examples. This course will also provide you with the latest supervision and leadership research, in addition to illustrating the evolution and development of modern leadership principles. The course is broken down into four lessons, each with individual assignments and examinations to be completed and submitted for grading at the completion of each lesson.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the fundamentals of four major approaches to leadership
  • Point out the intricacies of path-goal theory, leader-member theory, and transformational leadership theory
  • Categorize various principles of advanced leadership as well as the importance of morals and ethics in leadership and followership
  • Analyze the role of leadership involved with gender, culture, and globalization
  • Prepare responses to the essay questions about your results from the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire

Research and Statistics (3 credits)
This course addresses the application of scientific methods of inquiry to various research goals. You’ll be introduced to the research methods used by criminal justice professionals to prove or disprove criminal justice theories and to evaluate applications and policies.

This course will introduce you to some of the methods available for designing and formulating the valid, reliable research that’s needed to answer questions and issues in the field. The word statistics in the course title doesn’t refer to mathematics; this is, in fact, a communications course. Statistics are often the language of communication in the research field. Statistics and related tools enable you to convey findings efficiently, accurately, and with conviction.

Objectives:

  • Explain the purpose of reasoning and ethical principles in the research process
  • Explain access and structure research studies for valid and measurable results
  • Describe how to conduct qualitative research methods and analyze collected data
  • Distinguish among different kinds of research method designs and results
  • Analyze the effectiveness of a selected criminal justice theory through research and evaluation

Elective (3 credits)
See the list of electives below

Elective (3 credits)
See the list of electives below

Senior Capstone: Criminal Justice (4 credits)
Your Senior Capstone Project will test your newly acquired knowledge and examine your insider’s view of the criminal justice system.

For Part 1 of this project, you’ll review the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the history of search-and-seizure laws. Then, after reading the fact pattern of a case, you’ll discuss how the laws relate to a specific instance and decide how the law would apply in your state. You’ll also critique the law as you applied it to the case under consideration.

In Part 2, you’ll debate about individuals’ rights for both the accused and the victims. After some research and exploration, you’ll decide what would make a more humane, just, and moral criminal justice system. You’ll draft a new criminal justice system for a particular jurisdiction according to your own standards, the only condition being that it must meet current federal constitutional law standards.

Objectives:

  • Demonstrate effective written and interpersonal communication skills
  • Demonstrate job-specific technical and professional skills
  • Analyze the stages, implementations, and conflicts faced by the U.S. government to enforce law

Proctored Examination
You will be required to complete a proctored exam on selected courses each semester. These assessments will evaluate the knowledge and skills that you learned during the semester. You choose the time, the location, and the qualified exam supervisor.

 

Electives

Electives (3 credits)

White Collar Crime
Understand how white collar crime is financially motivated and nonviolent and is committed for illegal monetary gain.

Objectives:

  • Identify white-collar crime
  • Explain the costs and victims of white-collar crime
  • Contrast various theories of white-collar crime
  • Explain occupational and governmental crime
  • Summarize various state-corporate crimes, finance crime, and technocrime
  • Analyze attempts to police and regulate white-collar crime
  • Critique and defend legal approaches to white-collar crime

Prerequisites:

Courts - CJS123
Criminal Law - CJS238

Terrorism
Terrorism became a major concern for all American citizens after the September 11, 2001 attacks, especially for law enforcement professionals.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the theory and practice of domestic and international terrorism.
  • Describe the world of the terrorist.
  • Understand the role of law enforcement and security to keep our country functioning and free of domestic terrorism.

Computer-Based Crime
Presents the procedures used in criminal cases that involve the use of computers and cyberspace. Examines the history of computer-based crime and how technology has created new avenues to commit traditional crime as well all new opportunities for criminal behavior. Discusses a wide range of modern day cybercrime including hacking, digital piracy, online fraud, sex crimes, cyberbullying, and cyberterrorism. Looks at key theoretical perspectives, legal challenges, and perspectives on the future.

Objectives:

  • Describe the factors that influence hacking, malware, piracy, identity fraud, and other computer-based traditional statutes crimes.
  • Analyze the implications of various government legislation and the trends to minimize cybercrimes in the future.

Prerequisites: CJS101-Introduction to Criminal Justice

Textbook: Cybercrime and Digital Forensics: An Introduction

Crisis Intervention
Crises are a normal part of our lives. Whether it’s a devastating flood, a terrorist attack, cancer, or a loss of primary income, crisis workers have to be able to help clients overcome negative feelings and painful emotions.

Objectives:

  • Deal with people in crisis in a culturally sensitive manner.
  • Describe the different types of crises experienced in adolescence.
  • Understand how to handle loss, posttraumatic stress disorder, and crises of victimization.

Prerequisites: Police Studies – CJS120

Crime Scene Investigation Basics
This course provides an understanding of the scientific theory, practices, and techniques used to process a crime scene. It examines how crime scene professionals protect themselves and the evidence at a crime scene. It identifies and describes the different roles that law enforcement professionals execute at the scene of a crime. The course also describes the types of evidence and how evidence is collected and secured before a crime lab processes it.

Objectives:

  • Summarize the importance of physical evidence
  • Explain how to assess, photograph, sketch, map, and document a crime scene
  • Recognize the different methods and technologies used to collect evidence
  • Describe how to analyze and reconstruct a crime scene
  • Write an essay on the methods of investigating a crime scene associated with arson

Organized Crime
This course opens with a consideration of the development and structure of organized crime, looks at the different types of criminal activity typical to organized crime, reviews international organized crime, and closes with a consideration of the tools and means available to law enforcement to battle organized crime.

Objectives:

  • Discuss organized crime and the different theories offered to account for its existence
  • Summarize the origins of American organized crime in various cities and among different ethnic groups
  • Analyze the development of organized crime internationally Explain the varied activities of organized crime
  • Describe the response of law enforcement to organized crime on a local, national, and international level

Multicultural Law Enforcement
Examine the issues of crime and justice with respect to race and ethnicity.

Objectives:

  • Discuss how race and ethnicity affect the likelihood of being victims of crime or offenders.
  • Describe how people of various races and ethnicity are treated in criminal courtrooms and by police.

Prerequisites:

  • Police Studies – CJS120

Family Law
Family law is a topic that affects everyone. Most people marry at some point in their lives. Many married couples separate or divorce. Many people, married or unmarried, have children. These relationships are the most important relationships in people’s lives.

This course is intended to teach you the fundamentals of the legal and practical issues that a paralegal in a family law practice should know. There’s a lot to learn. Most family law issues are controlled primarily by the states, and the laws differ from state to state. This course can’t cover the details of every state’s approach to every issue. Instead, lessons will describe the broader legal principles that different states put into practice. The course will also address how federal law impacts families. This overview will allow you to learn more, whether in a future course or as a practicing paralegal, with confidence.

Objectives:

  • Explain the elements of family law practice and of marriage
  • Define the fundamental principles of law with annulment and the divorce process
  • Identify the role of a paralegal with cases involving parenthood, child custody, child support, and adoption
  • Identify the proper forum and procedural requirements for spousal support, property division, separation agreements, and family violence
  • Construct legal documents in order to apply learning of paralegal practice in the field of family law

Legal Environment of Business
This course will explore the legal aspects of business today. In addition, this course offers a good overall picture of the American legal system and how it affects business on a daily basis. Your course material is divided into five lessons based on your textbook, Business Law with UCC Applications, 14th Edition.

Objectives:

  • Analyze the sources and structure of the U.S. legal system, and the business laws and organizations
  • Point out the purpose, requirements, and criteria needed for contracts
  • Distinguish between real and personal property and the relationship between principal and agent
  • Analyze the principles of sales, goods, and services and laws by the UCC that governs them
  • Distinguish between the role of insurance, transactions, and bankruptcy in business law
  • Create a case brief by following the instructions and procedure
  • Prepare a written memorandum by applying your knowledge and following the instructions

Online Library and Librarian
Students at Penn Foster College have access to an online library during their college studies. Students can use the library to do the required course research or for general reference and links to valuable resources. The library contains helpful research assistance, articles, databases, books, and Web links. A librarian is available to answer questions on general research-related topics via email and will assist students in research activities.

* As a degree candidate, you will take a proctored examination at the end of each semester on selected courses within that semester. We make it easy because you pick the location and the person you want to supervise the exam, as long as Penn Foster College's established policy and qualifications are met. Complete information packets with procedures will be provided well in advance, before completion of final semester coursework.

You must complete all eight semesters, pass all courses, and achieve a cumulative Quality Point Average (QPA) of 2.0, or higher, in all studies to graduate and earn your Bachelor's Degree.

We reserve the right to change program content and materials when it becomes necessary.

NOTE: Shipments for students with advanced standing may vary from the schedule.

Although this outline covers 121 credits of the Criminal Justice Bachelor's Degree Program, you receive lesson materials for each semester as you enroll.

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